宏学堂 · VIEW——日比野设计与幼儿教育建筑

2020-02-27 17:39:01 宏钰堂教育 121

理解儿童的想法,才能创造出真正属于儿童的理想建筑

 本次宏·学堂带来的是日比野设计和他们的幼儿教育建筑项目及设计理念。 

日比野设计成立于1972年,现在由专门为幼儿建筑项目设置的Youji no Shiro,KIDS DESIGN LABO,以及专门面向老年人和身体不便者的FUKU SHI KEN三个部门组成。日比野设计在幼儿教育建筑设计方面有着几十年的经验,我们针对这个话题采访了日比野设计的创始人日比野先生,了解他们对于幼儿教育建筑设计有哪些经验和思考。 

HIBINOSEKKEI was established in 1972 and it has spent many years in children educational architecture design. Now HIBINOSEKKEI consists of three departments: Youji no Shiro and KIDS DESIGN LABO for children-oriented design, FUKU SHI KEN to design facilities for the elders and the disabled. In this article, we focus on children educational architecture design and interviewed the founder of HIBINOSEKKEI, having a clearer picture of what they have done and how they think in this specific aspect. 

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1. Youji no Shiro成立的初衷是什么?为什么关注幼儿园和学校的设计?

Why did you establish youji no shiro? Why did you pay attention to architecture design for children? 

世界上大部分建筑事务所都不会只专注于特定领域。但是,这样并不能建造出真正意味上的高品质建筑。设计一栋建筑只有关于建筑的知识是不够的,还必须对于建筑的用途有详尽的了解。我们从1972年创业以来到90年代期间设计了各种各样的教育设施,从幼儿园到大学不一而足。当时我们也设计了一些其他类型的建筑,但是到了2000年以后,我们认为应该明确自己的专业领域,为业主提供高质量的建筑设计方案,因此设立了名为“幼儿之城”的品牌,专门设计教育设施。教育左右了一个人的成长,其中教师当然是最重要的因素。然而在这之上,我们必须要创造能够进一步提升教育效果的空间。

 ▼日比野设计工作室场景,office of HIBINOSEKKEI

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Most architecture studios in the world are doing various kinds of architecture, though it doesn’t mean that they could design high quality projects.  To design a building, it is not enough to only know building technologies. It is necessary to understand that how the building would be used. During the years from 1972, when we established Hibinosekkei, to 1990s, we have designed different facilities from kindergartens to universities, as well as some projects other than educational facilities. After 2000, we decided to focus on one professional aspect and provide high quality solutions to our clients. Thus we established the brand of Youji no Shiro with speciality in educational design. Education would change the growth of a person. Although teacher plays the most important part of education, we have to design the right space which could facilitate the effect of education.  

2. 在幼儿设计方面,为何分别设置Youji no Shiro和KIDS DESIGN LABO?二者规模如何?两个部分之间的关系是怎样的?

Why did you separately establish youji no shiro and KIDS DESIGN LABO for children design? How many people in each department? What is the relationship between them? 

“幼儿之城”是日比野设计中专门设计教育设施的部门。许多教育设施虽然空间质量很高,但是由于家具、设备、制服、logo等未经设计,导致设施整体的概念被弱化。当然,我们可以选择现有的家具、设备、制服,但是既有的物品并不能与我们的理想完全一致。这样无法设计出我们理想中的教育环境。“世上没有的东西我们可以自己创造。“基于这样的想法,我们成立了KIDS DESIGN LABO这家公司,为教育设施提供高品质的家具、设备、制服、logo等配套设计。 

▼部分幼儿之城代表项目

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Youji no Shiro is a department special in education design in Hibinosekkei. There are many educational facilities with high space quality, while the furniture, equipment, uniforms and logo design is not accordant, which could weaken the whole concept of the project. It is easy to use existing furniture, uniforms and logos. However, the on shelf goods could never help us build the ideal education project. Thus we came up with design these items by ourselves and established KIDS DESIGN LABO. It is a company to provide high quality furniture, uniform and logo design for the educational facility.  

3. 你们进行了多年的幼儿教育建筑设计,有哪些重要的心得和理念?欧洲在幼儿建筑设计方面也处于世界领先,相比欧洲,日本在此方面有哪些特点?

After many years of design for children, what is your design philosophy? Europe also has advantage in children’s architecture design. Compare to Europe, what is different in the design of children’s architecture in Japan? 

20年前,我到欧洲学习了各种各样的案例。随着多年的参观学习,我们发现:设计有趣的教育设施很多,但是与教育内容相适应的设施几乎没有。建筑师只考虑设计,没有理解教育理论。我们认为这样的建筑并不是真正高品质的教育设施。我们的公司中有教育专家,设计师也在不断学习世界中的教育理论,以应对不同教育设施的设计需求。与其比较日本和欧洲教育设施有何不同,不如说日比野设计和幼儿之城设计的教育设施比其他任何项目都更好地把建筑和教育融合在了一起。 

郑州宏钰堂专业幼儿教育培训机构装修公司

郑州宏钰堂专业幼儿教育培训机构装修公司 

About 20 years ago, We went to Europe to study different cases of educational project design. After years of observation, I found that there are many projects with interesting design but none was designed according to the education content. We don’t think they are real educational facilities with high quality. In Hibinosekkei, we have education expert and our designers would keep up learning the educational theory in the world to meet requirements of different educational projects. Compared to the children education project in Europe and Japan, Hibinosekkei and Youji no Shiro could do much better in combining architecture with education.  

4. 安全是很多幼儿建筑设计的重要考量点。如何平衡儿童的运动需求和空间安全之间的关系?

Safety should be considered as an important factor in kindergarten design. How do you balance the safety requirement and children’s need to play? 

教育设施中所谓的儿童安全,仅仅是指儿童在设施内安全就好了吗?我们认为,儿童在设施中可以获得包括受伤在内的各种经历,这样他们在设施之外的地方才知道如何躲避危险,保证安全。这才是真正的教育设施的意义所在,也是教师需要教导学生了解的事情。比起在设施中过于在意安全问题,如何让每一天的活动快乐而充实更加重要。 

Does safety only mean to keep the children safe in the facility? I don’t think so. We believe that children could earn various experience in the facility including getting injured. Only then they could know how to keep themselves safe outside the facility and this is the real meaning of education. It is more important that teacher should teach to help children spend a meaningful day in the facility, than to overanalyze the problem of safety. 

郑州宏钰堂专业幼儿教育培训机构装修公司

郑州宏钰堂专业幼儿教育培训机构装修公司

 5.在儿童建筑中,模糊室内外边界的设计的意义是什么?在儿童的成长中发挥了怎样的作用?

Why did you blur the boundaries of interior and exterior in your projects? What meaning does it have for children’s growing? 

现代儿童更多时间是在是室内玩耍,模糊室内外限对于他们来说十分重要。借此,儿童可以自然地被诱导到室外,增加室外活动的时间。在室外配置自然元素也是设计中考量的要点,因为每日变化的自然可以激发孩子们的兴趣,刺激他们学习。 

Nowadays, children spend much time playing inside the house, so that blurring the boundary between interior and exterior space is very important. It could entice the children to go outside and increase their time of outdoor activities. Natural elements is also a significant point in the design as nature changes constantly, which could stimulate the children’s interest to learn. 

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 6. 你们经常设计透明开放的厕所,这样的设计相较传统厕所有哪些优势?对于儿童建立隐私和性别意识有怎样的影响?

What is the advantage of the open and bright toilet? What influence does it have on fostering children’s awareness on gender and privacy? 

大部分的教育设施中,厕所都设计在阳光照不到的阴面,这样导致了许多厕所都阴暗、寒冷,并且散发着臭味,被孩子们所厌恶。然而,在现代住宅中,人们越来越倾向于在明亮开放的空间设置厕所和浴室,并与房间采用同样的设计。这同样适用于教育设施。我们通过把厕所设置在可以受到阳光照射的地方,创造了一个清洁无味、受儿童喜爱的空间。 

In most educational facilities, toilet is always arranged on the dark side, which results in a dark, cold and stinky space where children dislike. It is a trend to use the techniques in room design to design open and bright toilets. We could also use the same design in educational project. By designing the toilet in a place with sunshine, we create a clean space loved by children.

郑州宏钰堂专业幼儿教育培训机构装修公司

郑州宏钰堂专业幼儿教育培训机构装修公司

 7. 你们的设计简洁,多使用颜色朴素的材料。请问你们如何选择材料?如何激起孩子的好奇心和创造力?

Your projects are always simple with plain colors. How do you choose the materials for a project? How could your projects stimulate children’s curiosity and creativity? 

在其他地方我也说过,孩子对色彩的反应其实是大人制造的。实际上很多儿童更喜欢朴素的颜色。此外,教育设施并不是游乐场。游乐场中会使用夸张的颜色并且配置各种角色形象,然而教育设施是一个让儿童去创造、产出的空间。即是说,这是一个由儿童来填充颜色的场所。就好比艺术家在白纸上作画,教育设施的空间应该尽可能简洁,选材以天然材料为中心,包括木材、铁、玻璃等,并且尽量保持材料原本的颜色。我们不应该用假的东西去欺骗儿童。简洁的设计正是为儿童留出创作空间,引出儿童自身的创造力。 

As I have said, the idea that children like bright colors is created by adults. In fact, there are many children who prefer plain colors. Educational facility is not amusement park, which is consist of dramatic colors and different characters. Educational facility is a space for children to create something. It is a place that children could fill in their own colors, which is similar to the artist to create a painting on white pape. Thus we try our best to create a simple space with natural materials, including wood, iron, glass, etc. We keep the materials in their original colors because we don’t want to deceit the children. Simple design leaves space for children and could stimulate their creativity.

郑州宏钰堂专业幼儿教育培训机构装修公司

郑州宏钰堂专业幼儿教育培训机构装修公司

8. 自然与幼儿建筑的关系是什么样的?

What is the relationship between children’s project and the nature? 

自然对于人类可以产生各种良好的影响,并且比起大人,对儿童可以产生更好的效果。天然的树木和花卉吸引来昆虫,昆虫吸引来鸟类捕食,这种景象在人工草坪和橡胶场地中是不可能看到的。在这样的环境中,儿童可以实际接触到在书本中看到的花朵、昆虫和鸟类。孩子们可能很快就会厌倦现成的游乐设施和玩具,但是自然中的环境会随着季节不断变化,让他们乐此不疲。 

Nature could influence adults and children in a good way. For children, it has better influence than adults. Trees and flowers could attract insects followed by birds. This would never happen in a garden with artificial lawn. Children could contact with the plants, insects and birds which they have seen on the books. In addition, unlike toys and other recreation facilities, natural elements would change constantly through days that children will never be fed up with them. 

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 9. 面对日本日渐严重的少子化现象,你们的设计理念和公司策略有怎样的发展和改变?

Children population is falling year by year in Japan. Facing this reality, what changes will you make in your design philosophy and company strategy? 

对于少子化,我们能做的事情就是创造让人们“想要寄放自己的孩子在这样的环境“,并且向更多人传达我们的理念。实际上,很多教育设施都是无聊的摆设,有全由伪造物堆砌而成的游乐场,也有由于难于照料而消灭了一切自然气息的庭院。而那些设施中的老师只会考虑怎么样让孩子平安无事地回到家里,忘记了教育真正应该做的事。我们相信只要我们能够改变现在的环境,人们一定会再次燃起想要生养孩子的希望。 

Facing the situation of falling children population, what we could do is to create spaces that people would like to leave their children in and convey our idea to the public. In fact, many educational facilities are boring spaces with fake playground or artificial gardens without nature. In those facilities, the only thing in the teachers’ mind is to ensure the children to go back home safely, which is far from real education. We believe that if we could change the current situation, people would recover their will to have children and raise them up. 

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 10. 2020年你们将有多个项目在中国竣工,中国的幼儿建筑设计和日本有哪些不同?你们是如何应对中国市场的需求的?

There will be a lot of projects completed in China in 2020. What is different between the design of children’s project in China and that in Japan? How did you meet the requirements from Chinese market? 

日本的教育设施大多都是由伪造物组成的。与其说比较中国和日本,不如比较我们和其他公司设计的教育设施。是否真心在为儿童做设计?这就是我们和其他人的差异所在。 

I must say that most of the education facilities in Japan are not real for education. Our design is different from other projects both in Japan and China. What makes us distinguished is that we design for children from our heart, which is the decisive point in educational project design. 

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 11. 什么是理想的幼儿建筑?

What is ideal children’s architecture in your mind? 

教育设施不应从成人的视点出发进行设计。成人总是会想“这样很危险”“保养起来很困难”“太贵了”“看不到孩子”等问题,这些想法绝大多数都与孩子们的希望相反。儿童想要挑战危险的事情;儿童不在意设施的保养维护;有些时候儿童希望从大人的视线中隐藏起来。比起一开始就有的夸张的色彩,儿童更喜欢由自己自由自在地上色。只有理解儿童的想法,才能创造出理想的、真正为了儿童的建筑。 

We should not design educational facility from the view point of adults. The adults always consider something as dangerous or too hard to maintain. They care about the cost and will be worry if the children are not in their sight. However, the children may think the opposite. They want to face the danger, and take chanllenge of it. They care nothing about maintaining. Sometimes they prefer to hiding from the adults. Compared to fixed bright colors, they are more into painting freely by them selves. Only by understanding children, could we create the ideal architecture truly for children.

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标签:   日比野设计 幼儿园设计