Preschool is a period when children's physical, cognitive, social and emotional development is significant. Designers should first understand the development needs of these four aspects, in order to develop a design plan that helps children develop good personality and physical development.
Physical development refers to the development of sports skills, physical fitness and self-confidence, while promoting physical health. Children grow and develop rapidly in the early stage. There are two main types of motor skills:
·Big muscle movement skill refers to the movement and coordination of big muscles, including arms and legs. In order to develop large muscle motor skills, children need to walk, climb, dig, roll, run, jump, jump, ride, jump, balance, throw, grip, swing, lift, push, pull, fall, stretch, carry, etc.
·Small muscle movement skills refer to small movements such as fingers, toes and eyes. In order to develop small muscle movement, children need to draw, write, grasp, throw, wave, grasp, pick up, etc.
Cognitive development refers to children's psychological development. Cognitive skills are related to language, perception, memory, reasoning, problem solving, thinking, imagination, etc. In order to acquire cognitive skills, children need to:
Participate in the decision-making of game space layout;
Define and develop their environment;
Feel ownership and partnership;
Make a decision and learn the possibility;
Sit high, observe carefully, plan, hide and show;
Retreat and hide while observing other people's activities;
Keep quiet and observe the world around you;
Exploration, discovery and reflection.
Social development refers to the process that children learn to interact with people around them. In the process, children learn about rules, cooperation and sharing, and use them to develop friendships and other relationships. Through social development, they have also developed language skills, built self-esteem, strengthened learning skills and learned to deal with conflicts.
Emotional development refers to the emergence of children's feelings, the expression, understanding and management of emotions. Through emotional development, they understand like, sympathy, responsibility, etc.
In order to acquire social and emotional skills, children need to participate in social interaction, conversation, sharing, going out and playing together, participating in free games, walking and running together, contacting with nature, caring for toys, plants or animals, and experiencing plants, light, color, structure, etc. with beautiful scenery changing with seasons.