宏学堂·第一节|为儿童设计的学习空间

2020-01-09 09:11:13 宏钰堂教育 139

良好的环境有助于儿童的发展,有助于提升他们的创造力及他们建立联系、交流、渴望发现和学习的能力。与传统机构的学习模式相反,良好的儿童学习空间有助于他们更好地进行自我表达和个性发展,所以幼儿园装修设计这一点非常重要,因为每个孩子都是独一无二的——他们的学习方式不同,学习进度也不尽相同。

A good environment is conducive to children's development, to their creativity and to their ability to connect, communicate, desire to find and learn. In contrast to the traditional institutional learning model, a good learning space for children helps them to better express themselves and develop their personality, which is very important, because each child is unique - their learning style is different and their learning progress is different.

为儿童设计的学习空间

为儿童设计的学习空间

Learning space for children

儿童学习空间,可以解释为“儿童用来学习的地方”,我们可以将其划分为三个部分来理解。

Children's learning space can be interpreted as "the place children use to learn". We can divide it into three parts to understand.

使用者——儿童

不同年龄段的儿童,他们的生理和心理特点、感知世界的方式等都有很大的不同,这就决定了他们对学习空间的要求也有所不同。

Children of different ages, their physiological and psychological characteristics, the way of perceiving the world and so on are very different, which determines their requirements for learning space are also different.

设计与教育的关系

功能——学习

一般来说学习是指通过阅读、听讲、思考、研究实践等途径来获得知识或技能的过程。不同的学习主体,获得知识或技能的过程也有着很大的差异。而对于学前阶段的儿童——尤其是低幼儿童来说,与其说他们在“学习”,不如说是在“玩耍”。

Generally speaking, learning refers to the process of acquiring knowledge or skills through reading, listening, thinking, research and practice. There are also great differences in the process of acquiring knowledge or skills among different learning subjects. For preschool children, especially young children, they are not so much learning as playing.

这阶段的儿童大都通过“玩”来了解和感知周围的世界,从而获得成长所必需的知识。因此,宏钰堂认为:学习空间除了具备“教室”的功能外,还要具备“有目的地鼓励儿童通过玩耍去探索和发现”的功能。

In this stage, most of the children understand and perceive the world around them through "playing", so as to obtain the knowledge necessary for their growth. Therefore, hongxuetang believes that learning space not only has the function of "classroom", but also has the function of "purposefully encouraging children to explore and discover through play".

发生的地方——空间

对于学前儿童来说,这个地方可以是幼儿园、游乐场、博物馆、早教中心、家中的儿童房,甚至是小区里的水池和沙堆。

For preschool children, this place can be a kindergarten, playground, museum, early education center, children's room at home, or even a pool and sand pile in the community.

正在发生改变的儿童学习空间

Changing learning space for children

研究表明,在儿童时期获得过积极体验的人往往在今后的生活中表现得更好,这对整个社会有着积极的影响。随着技术和教育的不断变革,新的学前教育设施形式也由此出现。

Research shows that people who have had a positive experience in childhood tend to perform better in their future lives, which has a positive impact on the whole society. With the continuous change of technology and education, new forms of preschool education facilities have emerged.

学前教育设施平面布局的变化

最为显著的是,我们可以注意到空间的开放性——新的学前教育设施越来越倾向于开放式的平面布局——和活动的多样性。学前教育设施开始引入一些新的活动,其中大多数活动过去只属于业余活动。这也改变了当代学前教育设施空的形式、类型和用途。

Most notably, we can note the openness of the space - the new pre-school facilities are increasingly inclined to open layout - and the diversity of activities. Preschool facilities began to introduce some new activities, most of which used to be part-time activities. This has also changed the form, type and use of contemporary pre-school facilities .

唯一的不变就是变化

我们可以发现,一些变化已经给我们如何设计学前教育建筑带来了影响。其中,最为明显的是整个社会的变革(不同的价值观、个性化、儿童与成人关系的新形式),以及教育施工和建筑技术的变革。

We can find that some changes have influenced how we design preschool education buildings. Among them, the most obvious are the changes of the whole society (different values, personalization, new forms of the relationship between children and adults), as well as the changes of education construction and construction technology.

今天的社会越来越以技术为导向,技术的使用也走进了幼儿园。很多机构从很早便开始使用计算机以让孩子们进行自主学习,但也有一些人反对技术。或许,最佳状态在于技术、社交技能和身体活动之间的平衡。

Today's society is more and more technology-oriented, the use of technology has also entered the kindergarten. Many institutions have been using computers for children's autonomous learning since very early, but there are also some who oppose technology. Perhaps the best balance is between technology, social skills and physical activity. Educational reform has also changed the role of teachers in the game room. Contemporary preschool education needs to embrace these changes.

教育变革也使教师在游戏室内的角色发生了改变。当代学前教育需要接纳这些变化。规范已然改变—当代教育迎合幼儿个体的发展,而学前教育设施内教师的角色则更接近于训练员而不是传统教师。训练员努力帮助孩子们获得更好的学习和生活技能,帮助孩子们面对困难以建立个体个性和能力。反过来也为教师在学习过程中发挥不同的能动作用创造机会。

Norms have changed - contemporary education caters to the individual development of young children, while the role of teachers in pre-school facilities is closer to that of trainers rather than traditional teachers. Trainers strive to help children acquire better learning and life skills, and help children face difficulties to build their individual personality and ability. In turn, it also creates opportunities for teachers to play different active roles in the learning process.

学前教育中教师的角色改变

学习无处不在

虽然我们可以找到以各种形式和材料出现的新学前教育设施,但事实上,当代学前教育设施的主要转变并不在于类型或形式上。随着教育的发展,当代学前教育设施已不只是一个为儿童提供被照顾的地方,或者学习行为只能以教学和学习的形式发生的地方。

Although we can find new preschool education facilities in various forms and materials, in fact, the main transformation of contemporary preschool education facilities does not lie in the type or form. With the development of education, modern preschool education facilities are not only a place for children to be cared for, or where learning behavior can only take place in the form of teaching and learning.

当代教育会考虑各种问题,从画图到使用厕所,都是一个学习过程。学习无处不在,因此当代学前教育环境的使用也发生了重大改变。如今,越来越多的空间被打造成学习区,而服务区和员工区的面积则不断缩减。

Contemporary education will consider all kinds of problems, from drawing to using toilets, it is a learning process. Learning is everywhere, so the use of pre-school education environment has changed a lot. Today, more and more space is being built into learning areas, while the area of service areas and staff areas is shrinking.

幼儿园空间布局规划

可持续技术的应用

学前教育设施通常会涉及可持续设计问题,从被动节能方法,例如合适的太阳方位、遮光情况及节能窗户,到主动节能方法,例如雨洪管理、太阳能电池的可再生能源或热泵,用以降低能耗。一些设施倾向于使用智能设备来控制灯光的使用和通风设备合理使用等,以便减少人为因素,同时对建筑的整体能耗进行优化。学前教育设施还希望通过应用可持续技术来培养孩子们的环境意识。

Preschool education facilities usually involve sustainable design issues, ranging from passive energy-saving methods, such as proper sun orientation, shading and energy-saving windows, to active energy-saving methods, such as rain and flood management, renewable energy from solar cells or heat pumps, to reduce energy consumption. Some facilities tend to use intelligent equipment to control the use of lighting and ventilation equipment, so as to reduce human factors, and optimize the overall energy consumption of the building. Preschool facilities also hope to develop children's environmental awareness through the application of sustainable technologies.

写在最后

HTE END

一个儿童学习的空间,是儿童发展认知、情感、社会和身体技能的场所。人们常说“一所好的幼儿园是孩子们的第三位老师”,这句话的意思是优秀的幼儿园不仅仅是建筑或者空间多么美观新颖,而是更加注重利用空间的细节设计,以及对儿童自主学习能力的培养来真正达到以设计促进教育目的。

A space for children to learn is a place for children to develop cognitive, emotional, social and physical skills. It is often said that "a good kindergarten is the third teacher of children". The meaning of this sentence is that an excellent kindergarten not only focuses on how beautiful and novel the building or space is, but also pays more attention to the detail design of the space and the cultivation of children's independent learning ability to truly achieve the purpose of promoting education through design.



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